We purchased HASCs (primary MSCs) from Cefo Bio Co. Ltd., and then HASCs were stocked as master cell bank (MCB) at passage 0 (table S1). HASCs were cultured using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and penicillin/streptomycin (P/S; 1000 UI/ml) at 37°C in humidified air containing 5% CO2. The cultured HASCs were stocked as working cell bank (WCB) at passage 3. Then, HASCs at passage 3 were cultured, and we replaced the medium every 3 to 4 days with fresh media, and HASCs were further expanded by plating 1 × 106 at passage 5. Cells were subcultured with 0.05% trypsin-EDTA. To differentiate white adipogenesis, we maintained HASCs at passage 5 in DMEM supplemented with 5% FBS, P/S (1000 UI/ml), 1 μM dexamethasone, 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), insulin (10 μg/ml), and 100 μM indomethacin. To induce beige adipocyte differentiation, we maintained HASCs in DMEM supplemented with 5% FBS, P/S (1000 UI/ml), 1 μM dexamethasone, 0.5 mM IBMX, insulin (10 μg/ml), and 2 μM rosiglitazone. We also changed this medium every 3 days for 14 days.

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