Time series analysis was conducted using kSpectra software. Before the analysis, the data of AP%, MTWM, Carb%, and Rb/Sr ratio were resampled at equally spaced 0.6-ka intervals using AnalySeries. They were then detrended using singular spectrum analysis (SSA) in kSpectra. A window length of 300 was selected following the suggestion that the window length should be less than about one-fifth of the point number in the time series (59). Burg covariance estimation and heuristic significant tests were used for the SSA decomposition. The multitaper method was then applied to the detrended data, and spectral peaks were evaluated against a red noise background.

To track the time-varying amplitude of orbital and suborbital periods, we calculated the continuous wavelet transform using the MATLAB code of Grinsted et al. (60). The statistical significance of wavelet power was tested relative to a red noise background power spectrum.

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