In the agent-based model, we measure energy in units of kBT at the physiological temperature of 310 K, length in units of bead diameter σ ≈ 0.14 μm, and time in units of τ = ζσ2/kBT ≈ 10−2 s, where ζ is the friction coefficient of the medium associated with the drag on a monomer bead in the model (29). All the parameter values used are listed in table S1.

Equations of motion (see the Supplementary Materials) are integrated using standard Euler-Maruyama algorithm with the time step δt = 1.5 × 10−4 τ. The simulations are carried out up to 108 time steps (≈104 τ). The simulations took 1 × 107 to 2 × 107 steps to reach the steady state, which was identified by monitoring the autocorrelation functions of density and local orientation of the filaments (fig. S2 and movie S1). We perform simulations in 2D with all polymers restricted to the xy plane and also in a quasi-3D geometry, with a stratified layer of myosin minifilaments placed “on top” of the plane of actin filaments. Dimensions of the 2D box in which all the actin filaments are restricted are Lx = Ly = 28 μm. Our simulations, done with the SAMoS program (45), include steric hindrance among all polymers via a truncated Lennard-Jones potential.

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