The MRI acquisitions were performed on a 3 T Philips scanner. The 32-channel Philips head coil was used. Patients underwent identical imaging protocol including the following MRI sequences: (i) 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequence, (ii) 3D FLASH sequence with multiple flip angles, (iii) susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence, (iv) fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, and (v) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence. Some of these imaging sequences are recommended when following the RECIST and RANO (response assessment in neuro-oncology) criteria for assessing brain metastases response after RT (30, 31). The 3D T1-weighted imaging sequence provides high-resolution contrast-enhanced images of healthy tissue and brain metastases following MRI contrast agent administration. The 3D FLASH sequence is repeated several times with a different flip angle for computing T1 relaxation times and contrast agent concentration. The SWI sequence is used for detecting the presence of hemorrhages. The FLAIR sequence is applied for monitoring the presence of inflammation or edema. Last, the DWI sequence can be applied for detecting abnormal water diffusion in tissue or brain metastases. The total acquisition time ranged between 30 and 40 min depending on patient-adjusted imaging parameters. The key features and the main acquisition parameters of these imaging sequences are detailed in the Supplementary Materials.

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