A function generator (Stanford DS345) and an amplifier (LabworkPa-13) were used to provide a sinusoidal pressure signal. A dual-range force sensor (Vernier Software & Technology LLC) was used to measure the external pressure applied to the TATSA. A Keithley system electrometer (Keithley 6514) was used to monitor and record the output voltage and current of the TATSA.

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