Phylogenetic signal in data indicates whether related species are more similar to each other in social organization than expected by chance. To quantify phylogenetic signal, we calculated both Blomberg’s K and Pagel’s lambda using functions in the R package “picante” and the fitDiscrete function in the Geiger package, respectively. We also used the D statistic (41) as a measure of phylogenetic signal for each individual social system using the “phylo.d” function in “caper”. D is applicable only for binary traits, so we codified each state as either absent (0) or present (1). A D of 0 indicates that a trait evolves on a tree following the Brownian model (strong phylogenetic signal), and a D of 1 indicates that a trait evolves following a random model (no phylogenetic signal). If D is negative, then the trait evolves in a more conserved way than predicted by the Brownian model. We conducted a simulation (1000 permutations) to test whether an estimated D was significantly different from the predictions of a random or a Brownian style evolution.

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