RNA was extracted from cells using TRIzol Reagent (Invitrogen). Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized using the PrimeScript RT Reagent Kit (Takara Bio). To quantify mRNA expression, cDNAs were amplified by RT-qPCR using the SYBR Premix Ex Taq RT-PCR Kit (Takara Bio). ACTIN and GAPDH expression levels were determined as internal controls for human and mouse, respectively. Fold change in expression level was calculated using the 2−ΔΔCt method. The primer sequences for all genes are provided in table S2.

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