Bone density of the femur was determined using microcomputed tomography (SCANCO Medical AG). Fat and lean body mass were measured using the EchoMRI-500 (EchoMRI, Houston, TX). Whole-body oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, and physical activity levels were determined using the TSE LabMaster System (TSE Systems, Chesterfield, MO). Measurements were taken over a 4- to 5-day period, with the first 1 and 2 days of data excluded for acclimatization to the new environment. Data represent averages of two or three 12-hour light or dark cycles.

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