A431 cells [human squamous cell carcinoma, female, RRID:CVCL_0037; American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)] and HEK293 cells (female; ATCC) were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with high glucose (4.5 g/liter). Cell culture media were supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 2 mM l-glutamine, penicillin, and streptomycin. Cells were kept in logarithmic growth phase at 37°C in humidified air containing 5% CO2. Stable TrxR1 or TRP14 KD HEK293 cell lines were generated as previously described (31).

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