To measure dynamic 3D remodeling between consecutive datasets, exported registered images were binarized, manually segmented, and subjected to bitwise operations to extract formed (bone absent in reference but present in target) and eroded surfaces (bone present in reference but absent in target scans); areas of the bone present only in earlier scans are considered resorbed bone, while those only present in later scans corresponded to newly formed bone (17). These operations were performed along the entire length of the tibia, and the resulting formed and eroded surfaces were quantified using 2D slide-by-slide analyses (CTAn 1.15+, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium). The first 20% proximal and the last 10% distal of the tibia were excluded from the analysis to avoid inclusion of the trabecular bone in the analysis of cortex.

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