To test the interface bonding strength of samples, all samples were deformed by applying uniaxial tension parallel to the y direction with a constant strain rate of 1 × 107 s−1 at a constant temperature of 300 K. The pressure in the x and z directions was kept zero, allowing for lateral contraction. The atomic-scale deformation mechanism was analyzed by visualizing the nonaffine squared displacements Dj2 (52), which is defined by Dj2(t,Δt)=1NjkNj[rjk(t)γjrjk(tΔt)], where γj=Yj1XjYj=kNj[rjk(tΔt)]T[rjk(tΔt)] and rjk=rkrj. We take Dj, the square root of Dj2, as the nonaffine displacement of each atom (fig. S10).

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