We characterized the actuation strain of LCE artificial muscle by analyzing the videos taken by the digital camera (Canon 60D) using ImageJ. The surface temperature of LCE artificial muscle during actuation was measured by thermal imaging technique (FLIR E75-42 Advanced Thermal Imaging Camera). The actuation stress of LCE artificial muscle was measured using the Instron Universal Testing System (5965 Dual Column Testing Systems; Instron) with 1-kN loading cell. During the mechanical measurement, we fixed the strain of LCE artificial muscle between two loading cells.

We characterized the actuation (bending and contraction) of the LCE tubular actuator by analyzing the videos taken by the digital camera (Canon 60D) using ImageJ. The surface temperature of the LCE tubular actuator during actuation was characterized using thermal imaging technique (FLIR E75-42 Advanced Thermal Imaging Camera).

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