The fabrication process of the heating mesh is shown in fig. S3. First, a 2-μm-thick layer of polyimide (PI) precursor was spin-coated onto the 20-μm-thick layer of copper. After that, the one-side coated copper was cured under 300°C oven under nitrogen protection. Then, we placed the PI-coated copper with the copper layer up onto a substrate, as shown in step (i). The photoresist AZ1512 was spin-coated onto the copper layer. Photolithography and wet etching define patterns of the copper wires (step ii). Later, we removed the residual photoresist with acetone; then, another layer of PI was spin-coated on the patterned copper layer and baked in 300°C oven under nitrogen protection. After that, photolithography defined a mask for dry etching process with CF4 and O2 through the PI layer. Last, we obtained the heating mesh by removing the photoresist with acetone.

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