On the basis of the FE-SEM observations, specific portions were extracted from the polished sections for SR-XCT analyses using FIBs (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Helios NanoLab 3G CX and Quanta 200 3DS) at Kyoto University [process (2) in fig. S1]. Specific areas (~25 × 25 μm) were cut out to a depth of ~30 μm using a Ga+ ion beam at 30 kV. Subsequently, the blocks were lifted from the polished sections and mounted on W-needles. The mounted samples were analyzed using SR-XCT [process (3) in fig. S1]. After the SR-XCT analyses, the samples were sliced into pieces for FE-TEM and NanoSIMS analyses using the FIBs [process (4) in fig. S1]. The sliced pieces were mounted on TEM grids and thinned to a thickness of 100 to 200 nm using a Ga+ ion beam at 30 kV. The damaged layers that formed on the ultrathin sections were removed using a Ga+ ion beam at 2 kV.

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