The AgNWs were patterned on a glass substrate by drop-casting of the solution (Agnw-120, ACS Materials) through a shadow mask that is prepared by a programmable cutting machine (Silhouette Cameo). The sample was baked on a hot plate at 80°C for 10 min and annealed at 200°C for 30 min to enhance its electrical conductivity. PDMS precursor (weight ratio of prepolymer: curing agent is 10:1) was spin-coated on the patterned AgNWs at 300 rpm for 60 s, and then, the sample was cured in the oven at 95°C for 2 hours. Because of the relatively high viscosity of the PDMS precursor, AgNW pattern was partially filled with the PDMS precursor, which results in partially embedded AgNWs within the solidified PDMS. The solidified AgNWs embedded in PDMS were peeled off from the substrate to finalize the preparation of the AgNWs/PDMS electrode. To ensure ohmic contact between the work function of electrode and HOMO level of P3HT, AuNPs were formed on AgNWs by galvanic exchange process (33). The AuNP formation began with dropping HAuCl4·3H2O (0.5 mM) on top of AgNWs/PDMS electrode. After 2 min, to allow Ag-Au galvanic replacement reaction, the coated electrodes were rinsed by deionized (DI) water, followed by dropping H4OH solution (28%) to dissolve the byproducts of AgCl layer on the AgNWs. Last, the preparation of AuNPs-AgNWs/PDMS electrode was completed by rinsing using DI water, drying with a N2 gun, and dehydration at 90°C for 5 min.

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