Male WT and heterozygous UCHL1 knockout (UCHL1+/−) mice (8 to 10 weeks of age) were used. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by TAC for 2 to 6 weeks as described previously (40). Animals were lightly anesthetized with isoflurane (1.5%). Cardiac function was evaluated by M-mode and B-mode echocardiography at different time points using a 30-MHz probe (Vevo 770 system; VisualSonics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Diastolic and systolic LV wall thickness, LV end-diastolic chamber dimensions, and LV end-systolic chamber dimensions were measured. LV anterior wall at end-diastole (LVAWD), LV anterior wall at end systole (LVAWS), LV internal dimension at end diastole (LVIDD), LV internal dimension at end systole (LVIDS), LV posterior wall at end diastole (LVPWD), and LV posterior wall (LVPWS) at end systole were obtained from original M-mode tracings over three cardiac cycles. The LV EF% and LV FS% were calculated. FS% was calculated using the following formula: %FS = (LVIDD – LVIDD)/(LVIDD).

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