Hydrodynamic diameter, polydispersity index (PDI), and ζ potential (surface charge) of the nanoparticles in 15× diluted PBS (~10 mM NaCl; pH 7.4) were determined by dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler anemometry using Zetasizer NanoZS (Malvern Instruments, South Borough, MA). Particle size measurements were performed at 25°C at a scattering angle of 173° and are reported as the number-average mean. The surface charge on the particles was calculated using the Smoluchowski equation and is reported as the mean ζ potential. Nanoparticle structure and morphology was assessed using FEI Tecnai T12 TEM (FEI, Hillsboro, OR) operated at 80 kV.

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