Nonparametric tests were used to compare non-Gaussian data. All quantitative data are fully displayed in graphs, as they are represented either with box and whisker plots (line shows the median value, box shows 25th to 75th percentiles, and whiskers show minimum and maximum values) or with symbols indicating each value. Comparisons of two groups were made with the Mann-Whitney U test, and comparisons of multiple groups used the Kruskal-Wallis test. Survival curves were compared using the log-rank Mantel-Cox test. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

As these studies were performed to generate preliminary data and demonstrate feasibility, power calculations could not be performed in advance; the number of experiments to be performed was determined on the basis of the number of experiments required in prior reports to demonstrate differences between groups of animals (22, 25). End points of all experiments were determined in advance of performing the experiment. All results of all experiments that were technically interpretable were included. No outliers from any experiment were excluded. The number of animals and replicates for each experiment is provided in the figure or legend.

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