LPL−/− mice fully back-crossed to the C57BL/6 background have been described (22, 25). WT and LPL−/− mice were bred and cohoused in the same specific pathogen–free barrier animal facility. Human rGM-CSF (20 ng in 6 μl of PBS per inoculation) was administered intranasally to pups in all experiments except for the data presented in fig. S1. In fig. S1, some neonatal pups received 20 ng of rGM-CSF in 10 μl of PBS via subcutaneous injection. Litters of WT and LPL−/− pups were divided such that approximately half received PBS and half received rGM-CSF and such that littermate controls were used to discern the effects of rGM-CSF. Mice matched for sex and age were used in all experiments, which were conducted in accordance with a protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM).

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