Unless otherwise stated, donor or recipient strains were cultured at 37°C in standard Luria-Bertani (LB; Miller) broth with shaking. Conjugation experiments were performed in M9 media containing casamino acid (2 mg/ml), thiamine (0.1 mg/ml), 2 mM MgSO4, 0.1 mM CaCl2, and 0.4% (w/v) glucose. We call this M9CA media in subsequent text. Rich LB or terrific broth (TB) was used to generate high cell density for subsequent conjugation in M9CA, which was used to control for growth dynamics. Shaking is applied for oxygenation, accurate OD measurements, and breaking up conjugation pili.

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