Gold sensors were purchased from Biolin Scientific (QSX301) and cleaned according to the protocol before use (2). QCM-D experiments were carried out in a Q-Sense Omega Auto system (Biolin Scientific) using two flow modules in parallel. Samples were introduced into the modules at a flow rate of 0.02 ml/min using a four-channel Ismatec ICP-N4 peristaltic pump. In QCM-D, changes in resonance frequency (ΔF) and dissipation (ΔD) of a quartz crystal are recorded to measure the amount and viscoelastic properties, respectively, of a material deposited on the sensor. The crystal is excited at its fundamental frequency, approximately 5 MHz, and changes can be observed at the fundamental (n = 1), as well as overtone frequencies (n = 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11). Readings taken at the fundamental frequency are not usually used, as they are prone to artifacts from the sensor clamp.

Freshly purified TLC-M solutions containing different concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml) of monomers were introduced into the modules at 4°C for liquid-like droplets and 25°C for unaggregated monomers and nanofibers. The adsorbed proteins on the gold sensors were then washed with deionized water for 20 min to remove any nonspecifically bound materials. Data are presented in Figs. 2G and 3D and figs. S3B and S6.

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