The superficial skin infection model has previously been described (15). Briefly, mice were infected with a preoptimized dose of SN1 or NS33. Mice were sacrificed at the noted time points, and the skin biopsy sample, spleen, and blood were collected. Tissues were homogenized, serially diluted, and plated on blood agar plate for enumeration of bacteria. Blood samples were also used for detection of toxin using Western blots assays. To model acute onset of STSS, the HLA-B6 and B6 mice were also challenged intraperitoneally as previously described (14). Briefly, mice were administered S. pyogenes (at varying doses) intraperitoneally in a 400-μl volume. To assess bacterial burden, mice were culled at defined time points; spleen and blood samples were harvested, serially diluted, and plated. For immunotherapy experiments following skin infection, mice were intraperitoneally administered 200 μl of designated antisera. For immunotherapy following intraperitoneal infection, mice intravenously received 200 μl of various antisera.

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