To carbonize the spongin scaffolds, selected fragments (Fig. 1A) up to 15 cm in diameter were placed in the center of a standard heating microscope device (fig. S2A). After pumping and purging the system with Ar three times, the temperature was ramped at 20°C min−1 up to 1200°C with feeding of Ar (150 standard cubic centimeters per minute) at ambient pressure.

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