Concretions containing T. arcuatus were scanned at the University of Texas at Austin ( high-resolution x-ray computed tomography facility. Sixteen-bit TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) images (1024 by 1024 pixels) were obtained using P250D, 450 kV, 1.3 mA, a small spot size, 1 brass filter, no offset, and gain used in lieu of wedge [integration time, 128 ms; slice thickness, 0.25 mm; S.O.D. (Source to Object Distance), 582 mm, 1000 views, 1 ray per view, 1 sample per view; interslice spacing, 0.23 mm; field of reconstruction, around 120 mm (maximum field of view, 120.8318 mm); reconstruction offset, 12,000; reconstruction scale, 4800]. Ring-removal processing was completed on the basis of the correction of raw sinogram data using IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine “RK_SinoRingProcSimul” with parameter “sectors = 100.” Postreconstruction ring correction used parameters “oversample = 2, binwidth = 21, sectors = 1.”

The bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum (snout to tail length, 120 mm) was stained in phosphotungstic acid in ethanol (1% solution) for 2 weeks. Scans were completed at the University of Chicago X-ray Computed Tomography facility, using a GE Phoenix 240/180 scanner at 75 kV and 150 μA, with no filter, and 1600 projections with a voxel size of 13.90 μm.

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