Fecal pellets were homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline (0.01 M, pH 7.0) using a Bead Ruptor 4 (Omni) and then sonicated using a Branson 3510 Water Bath Ultrasonicator. Activity of extracted bacterial GUS was measured by hydrolysis of phenolphthalein glucuronide (Sigma-Aldrich) to free phenolphthalein and quantified by spectrophotometry (39). GUS activity was calculated as mg of free phenolphthalein liberated/mg protein/hour of incubation.

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