Isoflurane-anesthetized mice were placed in dorsal recumbence on a heated (37°C) platform. After attaining a target heart rate of 550 ± 50 beats/min, transthoracic echo images were obtained with a Vevo 770 high-resolution imaging system (VisualSonics) using a model 704 transducer array. Images were collected and stored as a digital cine loop for offline calculations. Standard imaging planes and functional calculations were obtained according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. M-mode images at the level of the papillary muscles were used to determine LV wall thicknesses, chamber dimensions, and ejection fraction.

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