The primary behavioral performance measures considered from the task were RTs and the percent of no-response trials. To replicate outcomes from the original task implementation [7] and to assess task engagement, we analyzed RT data in a FEEDBACK [informative (i) versus noninformative (n)] * RESPONSE [correct (C) versus error (E)] repeated-measures ANOVA using SPSS (v23, Chicago, IL). As this analysis focused on the overall task effect (as opposed to session-specific fluctuations), each participant’s RT data were first averaged across all six neuroimaging visits (i.e., collapsed across session) separately for each trial type. Main and interaction effects were considered. To characterize group effects and drug effects on an objective measure of attention, we analyzed the percent of no-response trials in a mixed-effects ANOVA, including factors for GROUP (between participants: smokers versus nonsmokers), PATCH (within participants: nicotine versus placebo), and PILL (within participants: pre-pill, varenicline, versus placebo). Main and interaction effects were considered, and significant interactions involving the GROUP factor and/or a PATCH main effect were followed by within-group, repeated-measures ANOVAs including PATCH and PILL as factors. Geisser-Greenhouse corrections for violations of sphericity were used when considering effects involving the PILL factor (three levels). Pairwise follow-up t tests comparing nicotine versus placebo PATCH differences (in the absence of varenicline under placebo pill conditions) and assessing varenicline versus placebo PILL differences (in the absence of nicotine under placebo patch conditions) were Bonferroni-corrected. All participants (N = 44) sufficiently performed the task and contributed behavioral data to these analyses.

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