A total of 24 nontreatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day for >2 years, 12 females) and 20 nonsmokers (no smoking within the last 2 years and no lifetime history of daily smoking, 10 females) completed the study. All 44 participants were right-handed, were 18 to 55 years of age, and were recruited at the National Institute on Drug Abuse–Intramural Research Program (NIDA-IRP) in Baltimore, MD. Participants were healthy with no reported history of drug dependence (other than nicotine in smokers), neurological or psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular or renal impairments, diabetes, or MRI contraindications. Cigarette smokers were 36 ± 10 years old (mean ± SD), reported daily smoking for 18 ± 11 years, smoked 18 ± 8 cigarettes/day, and were moderately nicotine dependent (FTND scores: 5 ± 2; table S1). As nonsmokers were younger (30 ± 7 years old) than smokers, we considered the influence of age when comparing groups. The results and interpretations when including age as a covariate in between-group behavioral and neuroimaging assessments were the same as when age was not included. All participants’ data were used in behavioral assessments; however, for imaging assessments, fMRI data from two male smokers and one male nonsmoker were excluded because of excessive head motion during scanning (criteria described below). We obtained written informed consent in accordance with the NIDA-IRP Institutional Review Board, and volunteers were compensated for participation. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00830739).

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