Statistical analyses were performed in GraphPad Prism 7.0. By setting the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval based on the vehicle values, equivalence testing determined that uninjected and vehicle-injected cohorts were experimentally equivalent; therefore, comparisons to control groups were reported as P values determined between the means of experimental and vehicle-treated control cohorts. Tests between a single experimental group and a control were performed by unpaired two-tailed t test. Unless noted otherwise in the figure legend, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test was used to determine differences between the means of multiple experimental groups. Dot plots report means (center bar) and SEM (error bars). Dotted lines indicate 2 SDs above the vehicle or control mean. The F test was used to determine whether sample variances were equal. Survival comparisons were made using the Wilcoxon test and reported as a Kaplan-Meier graph.

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