All data are presented as means ± SD, and group comparisons were performed with a two-tailed Student’s t test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data were reported as means ± SD or SE as indicated. The mean values were compared using two-sided Student’s t test or analysis of variance (ANOVA), and P > 0.05 was considered nonsignificant (ns); *P ≤ 0.05 and **P ≤ 0.01 were considered significant.

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