To study the efficacy of pharmacological LPAR antagonists AM095 and Ki16425, we diluted the concentration of LPA to 10% (500 μM LPA in the stock tube) and added a carrier protein, 0.01% BSA, to the LPA and drug solutions, as BSA increases the solubility and bioavailability of LPA, Ki16425, and AM095 in solution (6). This LPA formulation was used for all LPAR inhibitor experiments, including Fig. 4F and fig. S7. Mice were pretreated with an intracranial injection of a 2.5-μl solution containing AM095 (1 mg/kg) (4 mM; HY-16029, MedChem), Ki16425 (1 mg/kg) (4 mM; 355025-24-0, Cayman Chemical), or vehicle (PBS with 0.01% BSA and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide) 15 min before injection at the same location with 5 μl of 18:1 LPA in PBS with 0.01% BSA.

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