Mitochondrial potential was measured using the tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) mitochondrial membrane potential assay kit (ab113852; Abcam), following the manufacturer’s protocol. Briefly, UM-SCC-22A cells were grown overnight in 96-well, black microplates with clear bottom and treated for 3 hours either with vehicle or with 5 μM SoSe, 20 μM FCCP, or DNP (positive controls) for 10 min. Following washing with PBS, 500 nM TMRE in complete media was added to the cells, and the plate was incubated for an additional 20 min at 37°C. After washing with PBS/0.2%BSA, TMRE fluorescence was measured using a microplate reader with Ex/Em = 549/575.

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