MA-XRF maps of the entire painting were collected in two scan sessions using the Bruker M6 Jetstream (11). The instrument consists of a measuring head equipped with a 30 W rhodium-target microfocus x-ray tube, a polycapillary lens, and an XFlash silicon drift detector with a beryllium window (energy resolution of <145 eV at Mn-Kα). By slowly moving the measuring head on the XY motorized stage, the painting was scanned pixel by pixel, line by line. By recording the emitted x-ray fluorescence radiation, the chemical elements present in the paint (associated with specific pigments) can be identified. With the Bruker M6, only elements heavier than silicon can be detected. Scans were carried out at 50 kV and a current of 600 μA, with a 400-μm step size and a dwell time of 125 ms. The distance between the scanning head and the paint surface was set at c. 1 cm, corresponding to an x-ray spot size of c. 300 μm. All data were collected with the Bruker M6 Jetstream software package. The acquired data cubes were then exported as raw files and processed and stitched using PyMca and the in-house developed Datamuncher software (30, 31).

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