Wing kinematics in generating rotational maneuvers

The recorded wing kinematics were represented by the stroke ψ, deviation θ, and rotation ϕ angles and parameterized using Fourier series. These wingbeats were classified into reference and pitch- or roll-generating ones based on their corresponding angular accelerations. More details are given in the Supplementary Materials. To investigate the changes of wing motion that produced the rotational maneuvers, the Pearson’s linear correlations between the changes of wing kinematic variables and body angular velocity and accelerations were calculated. The changes of wing kinematic variables include bilateral symmetric and asymmetric changes of stroke angle, wing rotation and deviation, stroke plane tilt, and wingbeat frequency. In addition, the correlation with stroke-averaged upward acceleration was also calculated.

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