This study used a set of 10 terrestrial carbon cycle models included in the TRENDY project (version 5), which aims to further investigate the spatial trends in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycles (52): CABLE (Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange) (53), CLASS (54), CLM (Community Land Model) (55), ISAM (Integrated Science Assessment Model) (56), JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg) (57), JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) (58), LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) (59), LPX (Land surface Processes and eXchanges) (60), ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems) (61), and VISIT (Vegetation Integrated Simulator for Trace gases) (62). Three TRENDY model experiments were used to evaluate the relative contribution of atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change to GPP: (S0) no forcing change, (S1) varying CO2 only, and (S2) varying CO2 and climate. The model differences of S1 and S0 and Eq. 20 were used to estimate GPP sensitivities to atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the differences of S2 and S1 and Eq. 22 were used to estimate GPP sensitivities to three climate variables: air temperature (βTa), VPD (βVPD), and PAR (βPAR).

All models were forced with reconstructed historical climate fields and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. All models used the same forcing files, of which historical climate fields were obtained from the CRU-NCEP v4 dataset (, and global atmospheric CO2 concentration was obtained from a combination of ice core records and atmospheric observations (63).

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