The following drugs were used: β-endorphin [a μ-opioid receptor agonist; 0.25 and 0.5 μg per side, dissolved in sterile saline (site), Bachem, Switzerland]; yohimbine (an anxiogenic compound; 5 mg/kg, dissolved in distilled water, intraperitoneal injection; Sigma-Aldrich, USA); naloxone (a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, dissolved in sterile saline, intraperitoneal injection; Sigma-Aldrich, USA); harmaline (a tremogenic compound; 10 mg/kg, dissolved in sterile saline, subcutaneous injection; Sigma-Aldrich, USA); and a retrograde tracer, 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI) (2%, dissolved in methanol, Life Technologies, USA).

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