SThM and KPM were performed using an MFP-3D infinity atomic force microscope (AFM) from Asylum Research with an added thermal module from Anasys Instruments. The SThM used a thermoresistor probe from Anasys Instruments, which consists of a thin Pd line on SiN. We used the probes in contact mode to sense the temperature at the surface of the heterostructures. The KPM was carried out with a metal-coated tip from Asylum Research in noncontact mode using amplitude modulation detection. In both SThM and KPM, the graphene top layer was electrically contacted using the AFM probe station from Asylum Research and a Keithley 4200 instrument.

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