The TEM images of the nanosamples were obtained by JEM-1400 (JEOL); high-resolution TEM and scanning transmission electron microscopy were performed on a Talos F200S (Thermo Fisher Scientific) system. The surface charges of the samples and size distribution were measured using by the multiangle particle size and highly sensitive zeta potential analyzer (Omni). XPS analysis was performed on an ESCALAB 250Xi x-ray photoelectron spectrometer.

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