Monolayer graphene was grown on Cu foil (99.8%, Alfa Aesar) using an Aixtron Black Magic Pro 4-inch CVD system. Before growth, the Cu surface oxide was selectively etched in HCl–deionized water (DIW) (1:2) solution for 10 min. Then, the Cu foil was annealed at 1050°C in Ar/H2 flow for 30 min. The growth was done at 1050°C under a flow rate of 10 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) CH4 and 30 sccm H2 for 15 min. Monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 were CVD-grown directly on SiO2/p+-Si (1 to 5 mΩ·cm) substrates at 800° to 900°C using S or Se solid sources with solid MoO3 or WO3 in a 2-inch tube furnace (20) under a flow rate of 10 sccm Ar for MoS2 and 25/5 sccm Ar/H2 for the selenides. To promote the growth, perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid tetrapotassium salt (PTAS) was used as a seed for the lateral epitaxial growth.

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