Immunolabeled chromosome spreads were imaged by confocal microscopy using either a Leica TCS SP5 resonant scanning confocal microscope driven by the Leica Application Suite Software or an Andor Dragonfly spinning disc confocal microscope driven by Fusion Software. Projection images were then prepared using ImageJ Software (National Institutes of Health, version 1.6.0-65) or Bitplane Imaris (version 8.1) software. Histology samples were analyzed with an epifluorescence microscope (BX52, Olympus) and processed using Photoshop (Adobe) software packages. Super-resolution SIM analysis was performed with the Acquire SR software on a DeltaVision OMX SR SIM system (GE Healthcare) equipped with a 60×/1.42 oil objective, and the images were further computationally reconstructed and processed with SoftWoRx software (GE Healthcare) to generate super-resolution optical series sections with twofold extended resolution in both the xy and z axes.

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