Between 2015 and 2017, five ice floes drifting in the Arctic Fram Strait were visited by ship-based helicopters or dinghies during three expeditions of the research icebreaker RV Polarstern (Fig. 1A and Table 1). Surface snow was sampled with a prerinsed mug, a steel spoon, or a soup ladle and transferred into containers made of PVC, PE, or glass (see table S2 for more details). In March 2018, five samples were taken at different locations on Svalbard (Fig. 1A and Table 1) by citizen scientists embarking on a land expedition by ski doo (Aemalire project). The citizens were instructed on contamination prevention and equipped with protocol forms, prerinsed 2-liter stainless steel containers (Ecotanca), a porcelain mug, a steel spoon, and a soup ladle for sampling.

AWI, Alfred-Wegener-Institut. Helmholtz-Zentrum fur Polar- und Meeresforschung; SLF Davos, WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research.

In February 2018, the surface of freshly deposited snow was transferred with a spoon from parking cars in the city of Bremen into glass jars (Fig. 1B and Table 1). Only surface snow was taken, leaving behind a thin layer of snow on top of car surfaces. One month later, freshly deposited surface snow was collected with a soup ladle on the Isle of Heligoland from the backyard and next to a pedestrian path in front of the Alfred Wegener Institute campus (Fig. 1B and Table 1), avoiding soil and bottom surfaces. In the Swiss Alps, surface snow was collected with a spoon at a snowfield in the surroundings of Tschuggen and in the village of Davos (Fig. 1B). This snow had fallen 2 days before sampling (7 March 2018). In the Bavarian Alps (Germany), citizens transferred freshly fallen surface snow with a steel spoon from three different locations into glass jars that had been prerinsed with tap water (Fig. 1B and Table 1): Sample 1 was taken next to a country lane, sample 2 was collected next to a country lane and a lake, and sample 3 was taken in a green area with nearby anthropogenic activity. All teams worked with bare hands, and the equipment was rinsed with Milli-Q water, tap water, or snow. Except for the Bavarian samples, potential sample contamination from the sealing of glass jars was minimized by a sheet of tin foil. Samples were kept frozen but defrosted during transport to Heligoland or in the laboratory.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.



Q&A
Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.



We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.