The peptide hydrogelator was prepared by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), in which 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (1.10 mmol/g) and Fmoc-protected amino acids with side chains protected by tert-butoxycarbonyl group [Fmoc-d-Lys-(Boc)-OH] were used. The resin was swelled by bubbling with nitrogen gas in dry dichloromethane (DCM) for 30 min and then was washed three times with 5 ml of dry DMF. After that first amino acid [Fmoc-d-Lys-(Boc)-OH] was added and reacted with resin at its C terminus by bubbling the resin in a DMF solution of Fmoc-protected amino acid (2 equivalent) and 1 ml of N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) for 40 min, followed by washing the resin with 5 ml of DMF three times. Blocking solution (16:3:1 of DCM/methanol/DIPEA) was then added to resin to quench the unreacted sites in resin and bubbled twice for 10 min. The protected Fmoc group was cleaved from the resin by adding 5 ml of 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF and bubbling for 30 min, followed by washing the resin in DMF five times. Then, Fmoc-protected amino acid (Fmoc-d-Phe-OH, 2 equivalent) was dissolved in DMF and conjugated to the free amino group on the resin, using DIPEA (1 ml)/O-benzotriazole-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-uroniumhexafluoro-phosphate (2 equivalent). These conjugation and deprotection steps were repeated to prolong the peptide chain, which were according to standard Fmoc SPPS protocol. After each step, the resin was washed three times with 5 ml of DMF. In the final step, the resin was washed with DMF (5 ml, 5×), DCM (5 ml, 50×), methanol (5 ml, 5×), and hexane (5 ml, 5×), and then, the peptide was cleavaged from resin by adding 10 ml of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and bubbling for 2 hours. The product was collected by the precipitation in ether and further purified with reverse-phase HPLC. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.26 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 8.09 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.85 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.51 to 7.42 (m, 2H), 7.29 to 7.10 (m, 10H), 4.60 to 4.54 (m, 2H), 4.54 to 4.45 (m, 1H), 4.20 (dd, 1H), 3.53 (dd, J = 35.9, 14.0 Hz, 2H), 3.08 to 3.03 (m, 2H), 2.95 to 2.79 (m, 2H), 2.69 (dd, J = 13.4, 10.3 Hz, 1H), 2.54 (s, 2H), and 1.33 to 1.62 (m, 6H).

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