RNA from cells was extracted using TRIzol (Life Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s described protocol. The thus obtained RNA was quantified using NanoDrop (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) and equilibrated for all samples with Molecular Biology Grade water (Corning, USA) before they were reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA) using the High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Equal amounts of cDNA were analyzed via real-time quantitative PCR using Fast SYBR Green Master Mix on QuantStudio 7 Flex system (Applied Biosystems). The primers used in this study were as follows: GAPDH forward, 5′-TCCACTGGCGTCTTCACC-3′; GAPDH reverse, 5′-GGCAGAGATGATGACCCTTTT-3′; IFN-α forward, 5′-GATGGCAACCAGTTCCAGAAG-3′; IFN-α reverse, 5′-AAAGAGGTTGAAGATCTGCTGGAT-3′; IFN-β forward, 5′-CTCCACTACAGCTCTTTCCAT-3′; IFN-β reverse, 5′-GTCAAAGTTCATCCTGTCCTT-3′; TNF-α forward, 5′-AGCCCATGTTGTAGCAAACCC-3′; TNF-α reverse, 5′-GGACCTGGGAGTAGATGAGGT-3′.

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