GFETs (n = 20) were characterized to ensure ohmic contacts of metal to graphene by recording source-to-drain current (ISD) with varied source-to-drain voltage (VSD) using a source meter unit (2604, Keithley). Three-terminal water-gate measurements were obtained in Tyrode’s solution, composed of calcium chloride (0.2 g/liter; anhydrous), magnesium chloride (0.1 g/liter; anhydrous), potassium chloride (0.2 g/liter), sodium chloride (8 g/liter), sodium phosphate monobasic (0.05 g/liter; anhydrous), d-glucose (1 g/liter), and sodium bicarbonate (1 g/liter; Sigma-Aldrich, catalog no. T2145), supplying a linearly increasing gate potential from −0.3 to 0.7 V via Ag/AgCl electrode using a function generator (DG1032, Rigol). The charge neutrality voltage (Dirac point) was determined as the voltage at which the recorded ISD was at minimum. Device sensitivity was determined by taking the first derivative of ISD. The maximum p- and n-type regime sensitivity was determined by the minima and maxima of the sensitivity curve, respectively (fig. S4J).

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