According to 45th Critical Care Congress of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) in 2016, sepsis was diagnosed as “life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host response to infection.” The exclusion criteria included the following: age <18 or >65 years, pregnant or lactating women, those who received chemotherapy within the recent 6 months, those who received corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents or immunomodulators within the preceding 3 months, those with immune system diseases, HIV-positive patients, those with end-stage liver or renal failure, and those who stayed in the ICU for less than 48 hours. The plasma of survivors and nonsurvivors diagnosed as sepsis and nonseptic patients was obtained within 24-hour ICU admission at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. All healthy donors and patients gave written consents. The nonseptic controls were healthy volunteers and matched by age and sex with the sepsis patients. Fgl2KO and FcγRIIBKO mice were respectively provided by S. Smiley (The Trudeau Institute, NY, USA) and J. S. Verbeek (Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands). C57BL/6 mice were obtained from the Animal Institute of the Academy of Medical Science (Beijing, China). The mice were kept under specific pathogen–free conditions at the Animal Center of the Third Military Medical University. All human and animal experiments met the ethical principles and requirements of our committee and comply with the Declaration of Helsinki. The institutional review board and/or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines were followed with human or animal subjects.

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