First, selective membrane solution and PVB reference electrode solution were prepared according to the methods in the reported literature (40). The Na+ selective membrane was composed of Na ionophore X (1%, w/w), Na-TFPB (0.55%, w/w), PVC (33%, w/w), and DOS (65.45%, w/w). Then, 400 mg of the mixture was dissolved in 2640 μl of tetrahydrofuran with stirring for 30 min. Similarly, K+ selective membrane cocktail, which consisted of valinomycin (2%, w/w), NaTPB (0.5%), PVC (32.7%, w/w), and DOS (64.7%, w/w), was dissolved in cyclohexanone to get membrane solution. The ion-selective solutions were sealed and stored at 4°C. PEDOT:PSS was used as the ion-electron transducer to minimize the potential drift of the ion-selected electrode (ISE) and was deposited onto the working electrodes by galvanostatic electrochemical polymerization from a solution containing 0.01 M EDOT and 0.1 M NaPSS. Ion-selective membranes were then prepared by drop-casting 10 μl of Na+ selective membrane solution and 4 μl of K+ selective membrane solution onto their corresponding electrodes. The PVB reference solution was prepared by dissolving 79.1 mg of PVB and 50 mg of NaCl into 1 ml of methanol with stirring for 1 hour. Then, the reference electrodes for ISEs were fabricated by casting 10 μl of PVB reference solution onto the Ag/AgCl electrodes.

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