To prepare the enzyme-based sensors, target oxidase solution was prepared in advance and stored at 4°C for 6 hours. Glucose oxidase solution was prepared by dissolving glucose oxidase powders in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with pH 7.2 (10 mg ml−1). Then, the prepared glucose oxidase solution was mixed thoroughly with chitosan solution (1% chitosan in 2% acetic acid) in a volume ratio of 1:1. Lactate oxidase solution with a concentration of 40 mg ml−1 was also prepared by dissolving lactate oxidase powders in PBS. To prepare the working electrodes of enzyme-based sensors, an electrochemical deposition process was performed in a solution of 5 mM H2PtCl6 and 0.1 M HCl at −0.1 V for 5 min to obtain the Pt nanosphere–decorated SilkNCT (Pt/SilkNCT). The final working electrode of the glucose sensor was fabricated by drop-casting 10 μl of the glucose oxidase/chitosan solution onto the Pt/SilkNCT electrode. For the lactate sensors, Pt/SilkNCT was covered with 5 μl of lactate oxidase solution and 5 μl of chitosan solution.

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