The fabrics were carbonized under a mixed atmosphere of argon [purity, 99.999%; gas flow, 110 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) ] and hydrogen (purity, 99.999%; gas flow, 10 sccm) in a tube furnace with the following heat treatment programming: (i) being heated from 25° to 120°C within 10 min and kept for 30 min; (ii) being heated to 350°C at a rate of 5°C min−1 and kept for 150 min; (iii) being heated to 900°C (800° and 1050°C) at a rate of 3°C min−1 and kept for 90 min; and (iv) naturally cooling down to room temperature.

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