To confirm the photochemical formation of O2•−, NAD+ and 30 μM NBT were dissolved in a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.5). We injected 500 μl of reaction sample into a 1.5-ml Eppendorf tube (SPL Life Sciences Co., Korea). The reaction volume and the vessel type in control groups were identical to those in the experimental group. The tube was irradiated by a xenon lamp (Newport Co., USA) equipped with an infrared water filter. After irradiation, we used a V-650 UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometer (JASCO Inc., Japan) to monitor a change in the absorbance at 560 nm. Note that NBT formazan, which forms by the reaction between O2•− and NBT, exhibits a maximum absorption at 560 nm. The O2- or N2-rich solution was prepared by purging with O2 or N2, respectively, for 1 hour.

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