Pollination and pest control services
MD Matteo Dainese  EM Emily A. Martin MA Marcelo A. Aizen MA Matthias Albrecht IB Ignasi Bartomeus RB Riccardo Bommarco LC Luisa G. Carvalheiro RC Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer VG Vesna Gagic LG Lucas A. Garibaldi JG Jaboury Ghazoul HG Heather Grab MJ Mattias Jonsson DK Daniel S. Karp CK Christina M. Kennedy DK David Kleijn CK Claire Kremen DL Douglas A. Landis DL Deborah K. Letourneau LM Lorenzo Marini KP Katja Poveda RR Romina Rader HS Henrik G. Smith TT Teja Tscharntke GA Georg K. S. Andersson IB Isabelle Badenhausser SB Svenja Baensch AB Antonio Diego M. Bezerra FB Felix J. J. A. Bianchi VB Virginie Boreux VB Vincent Bretagnolle BC Berta Caballero-Lopez PC Pablo Cavigliasso  Aleksandar Ćetković NC Natacha P. Chacoff AC Alice Classen SC Sarah Cusser FS Felipe D. da Silva e Silva GG G. Arjen de Groot JD Jan H. Dudenhöffer JE Johan Ekroos TF Thijs Fijen PF Pierre Franck BF Breno M. Freitas MG Michael P. D. Garratt CG Claudio Gratton JH Juliana Hipólito AH Andrea Holzschuh LH Lauren Hunt AI Aaron L. Iverson SJ Shalene Jha TK Tamar Keasar TK Tania N. Kim MK Miriam Kishinevsky BK Björn K. Klatt AK Alexandra-Maria Klein KK Kristin M. Krewenka SK Smitha Krishnan AL Ashley E. Larsen CL Claire Lavigne HL Heidi Liere BM Bea Maas RM Rachel E. Mallinger EP Eliana Martinez Pachon AM Alejandra Martínez-Salinas TM Timothy D. Meehan MM Matthew G. E. Mitchell GM Gonzalo A. R. Molina MN Maike Nesper LN Lovisa Nilsson MO Megan E. O'Rourke MP Marcell K. Peters MP Milan Plećaš SP Simon G. Potts DR Davi de L. Ramos JR Jay A. Rosenheim MR Maj Rundlöf AR Adrien Rusch AS Agustín Sáez JS Jeroen Scheper MS Matthias Schleuning JS Julia M. Schmack AS Amber R. Sciligo CS Colleen Seymour DS Dara A. Stanley RS Rebecca Stewart JS Jane C. Stout LS Louis Sutter MT Mayura B. Takada HT Hisatomo Taki GT Giovanni Tamburini MT Matthias Tschumi BV Blandina F. Viana CW Catrin Westphal BW Bryony K. Willcox SW Stephen D. Wratten AY Akira Yoshioka CZ Carlos Zaragoza-Trello WZ Wei Zhang YZ Yi Zou IS Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
This protocol is extracted from research article:
A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production
Sci Adv, Oct 16, 2019; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax0121

As different methods were used to quantify pollination or pest control services across studies, standardization was necessary to put all the indices on equivalent terms. Therefore, we transformed each index y in each field i in each study j using z scores. We preferred the use of z scores over other transformations (for example, division by the maximum) because z scores do not constrain the variability found in the raw data, as do other indices that are bounded between 0 and 1. We used the proportion of flowers that set fruit (that is, fruit set), the average number of seeds per fruits (that is, seed set), or the estimated measures of pollinator contribution to plant reproduction (that is, differences in fruit weight between plants with and without insect pollination, hereafter Δ fruit weight) as measures of pollination services. We then converted these measures into the pollination index. The pest control index was calculated using measures of natural enemy activity or pest activity. Natural enemy activity was measured by sentinel pest experiments where pests were placed in crop fields and predation or parasitism rates were monitored or by field exclosure experiments where cages were used to exclude natural enemies to quantify differences in pest abundance or crop damage between plants with and without natural enemies. Pest activity was measured as the fraction or amount of each crop consumed, infested, or damaged. We inverted standardized values of pest activity by multiplying by −1, as low values indicate positive contributions to the ecosystem service.

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